In Derry and other areas of conflict (primarily the region of Ulster), members of the IRA brutally punished those who harbored and sympathized with the British.
Heaney wrote this poem, along with seven others (originally published as a collection titled ), in response to the discovery of several bog bodies.
However around 750 BC or a little later, there was a migration of seagoing merchants from his original home in Cyme in Asia Minor to Cumae in Campania (a colony they shared with the Euboeans), and possibly his move west had something to do with that, since Euboea is not far from Boeotia, where he eventually established himself and his family.
In spite of Hesiod's complaints about poverty, life on his father's farm could not have been too uncomfortable if Works and Days is anything to judge by, since he describes the routines of prosperous yeomanry rather than peasants.
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Pausanias asserted that Boeotians showed him an old tablet made of lead on which the Works were engraved.
If he did write or dictate, it was perhaps as an aid to memory or because he lacked confidence in his ability to produce poems extempore, as trained rhapsodes could do.
Additional footnotes on “Punishment” can be found here.
The former poem says that his father came from Cyme in Aeolis (on the coast of Asia Minor, a little south of the island Lesbos) and crossed the sea to settle at a hamlet, near Thespiae in Boeotia, named Ascra, "a cursed place, cruel in winter, hard in summer, never pleasant" (Works 640).
Hesiod's patrimony there, a small piece of ground at the foot of Mount Helicon, occasioned lawsuits with his brother Perses, who seems, at first, to have cheated him of his rightful share thanks to corrupt authorities or "kings" but later became impoverished and ended up scrounging from the thrifty poet (Works 35, 396.).
Fanciful though the story might seem, the account has led ancient and modern scholars to infer that he was not a professionally trained rhapsode, or he would have been presented with a lyre instead.
It might seem unusual that Hesiod's father migrated from Asia Minor westwards to mainland Greece, the opposite direction to most colonial movements at the time, and Hesiod himself gives no explanation for it.
These bodies, dating back to the 1500s and earlier, were immaculately preserved in the environment of the bogs. The original speculation also indicated the body died an unnatural death, and that Windeby I was an adulteress who had been punished in brutal, tribal ways for her crime. The original date of Windeby’s death is unknown, but it’s believed that Windeby was actually a young boy, not a woman.